Class 9 History Chapter 1

You should first study minutely the concepts from the textbook before revising the chapter from the below notes. These concise notes will help you with revision during the exams.

Society in France In the late Eighteenth Century

Louis XVI ascended the French monarchy in 1774. Because of the conflict, France’s financial resources were depleted. 

The Battle for Survival

As the world’s population grew, so did the demand for food grains. Because grain production could not keep up with demand, the price of bread skyrocketed.  

A Growing Middle Class Envisages an End to Privilege

Historically, peasants took involved in revolts against taxes and food  deprivation. The third estate had prospered and had gained access to  education and new ideas.  

The Outbreak of the Revolution

To pass proposals for new taxes, they had to convene an assembly of the  Estates-General, a political body to which the three estates sent  representatives. 

France Becomes a Constitutional Monarchy

The National Assembly finished the draught of the constitution in 1791, with the main goal of limiting the monarch’s powers.  

France Abolishes Monarchy and Becomes a Republic

The National Assembly voted in April 1792 to declare war on Prussia and  Austria. The Marseillaise became France’s national anthem.  

The Reign of Terror

The reign of terror, which lasted from 1793 to 1794, is known as the  Reign of Terror. People that Robespierre considered to be enemies of the  republic 

A Directory Rules France

Non-property portions of society were denied voting rights under the new constitution.