Manual Testing Interview Questions: Software testing is a crucial part of the success of any software. Manual testing plays an essential role in software development & comes in handy every time you have a situation where one can’t utilize automated tests. Therefore this makes it a great opportunity for individuals with the required skills for manual testing to be hired. When preparing for manual testing interview questions, this article will offer you a perfect guide for you to get what will be required by the Software Testing Interview panel.
What are the most commonly asked manual testing interview questions?
What’s software testing?
This is a validation process that approves that a system operates as required by the business. It succeeds a system on different aspects like usability, completeness, accuracy, efficiency, and more others. ANSI/IEEE-1059 is a global standard that states the basic testing principles.
It measures system overall quality in terms of attributes. This includes correctness, usability, performance, completeness, etc.
What’s the importance of testing?
- Testing offers an assurance to stakeholders which the product mechanisms are as intended.
- Saves time for development by detecting problems in the earlier development phase
- Defects are detected in the earlier phase of SDLC outcomes in a lesser cost & resource usage of correction.
- Preventable defects leaked to end-user/customer minus proper testing increase a bad reputation to Development Company.
- Testing-team adds a different dimension to software development by offering various viewpoints to product development procedures.
What are the 2 major categories of software testing?
This is a big domain though it can be largely categorized into 2 areas. These includes:
Automation Testing – It’s the process of utilizing the assistance of scripts, tools & software to do test cases through repeating pre-defined acts. Test-Automation concentrates on replacing-manual human work with devices or systems that improves efficiency.
Manual Testing – It’s the oldest kind of software testing. The testers execute test-cases manually minus using test-automation tools. This means software applications will be tested manually through QA testers.
When should one stop a testing process?
The testing process ends when a testing team finishes some of the milestones.
The end date of the validation stage states the closure of validation if there are no critical/high-priority defects that are remaining in a system.
Successful accomplishment of a complete test cycle after final bug-fix marks end of the testing phase.
MTBF (Mean Time-Between Failure) rate
This refers to the average amount-of-time that a product or device functions before it fails. The unit of measurement includes just operational time in between failures & doesn’t include the repair period, assuming the product is repaired & starts functioning again. Mean Time-Between Failure figures are normally used in projecting how likely a single-unit is to fail in a certain period.
CC (Code Coverage) ratio
This is the amount of code-concealed through automated tests. If the team attains the anticipated level of CC (code coverage) ratio, then it chooses to end validation.
What’s quality control?
This is a product-oriented method of running software to determine if it defects. This also makes sure that the software suits all of the requests put forth by stakeholders.
What’s Quality Assurance?
This is a process-driven method that checks if the development process of the product is correct & conforming to every standard provided. It’s considered a preventive measure. The reason being it identifies weaknesses in process of building software. It also comprises activities like test case review, inspection, document review, walk-throughs, etc.
What’s static testing, when does it start & what does it entail?
This is a white-box testing method that directs developers in verifying their code with the assistance of a checklist in finding errors inside it. Moreover, developers can begin static testing minus finalizing the program or application. Additionally, static testing is extra cost-effective compared to dynamic testing and it has more sections than dynamic testing within a shorter time.
SDLC is a short form of the Software Development-Life Cycle. This refers to every activity that’s performed in any software development. The activities include requirement gathering, designing, requirement analysis, coding/implementation, testing, maintenance, and deployment.
What different types of manual testing are there?
Various kinds of manual testing include;
- System Testing
- White-Box Testing
- Black-Box Testing
- Unit Testing
- Integration Testing
- Acceptance Testing
What’s Black-box testing?
It’s a normal software testing method that needs testers for assessing the functionality of the software as required by the business. Software’s are treated as a black-box & validated like the end user’s point-of-view.
What’s the test bed?
This is a test environment utilized for testing applications. Test bed configuration consists of the hardware & software requirement of the application under-test. These include an operating system, software configurations, hardware configurations, database, tomcat, etc.
What’s a test scenario?
This is derived from a use-case. It’s utilized for end-to-end testing of features of the application. A single test-scenario caters to numerous test cases. Scenario testing is mainly useful when there’s a time constraint as you do the testing.
What’s the test plan?
This is a formal document that describes the scope of testing, a method to be utilized, resources required & time estimate for carrying out the testing process. It’s derived from requirement documents which are Software Requirement Specifications.
What’s Test data?
This is data that’s utilized in testing the software with various inputs & helps in checking whether a corresponding output is as per expected outcomes or not. This information is made based on business requirements.
What’s test coverage?
This is a quality metric that represents the percentage amount of testing finished for a product. It’s important to all functional & non-functional testing actions. The metric is utilized to add missing test cases.
What’s the difference between beta testing and alpha testing
- Beta Testing – It’s performed by real users of software applications in real environment. Furthermore, Beta Testing is a kind of user-acceptance testing.
- Alpha Testing – It’s a kind of software testing done to find bugs before freeing the product to real users or the public. Alpha-Testing is a kind of user-acceptance testing.
What are integration testing & unit-testing?
Unit testing consists of numerous names like module/testing or component/testing.
Numerous times, it’s the developers that test modules or individual units to verify if they’re working well.
Integration testing authenticates how best two/more units of the software relate with each other.
The three ways to validate integration include
- Top-down approach
- Big-Bang approach
- Bottom-up approach
What’s agile testing & why is it significant?
This is a software testing process that assesses software from customers’ point-of-view. It’s favorable as it doesn’t need a development team for complete coding to begin QA. Instead, all coding & testing go hand-in-hand. However, this needs constant customer interaction.
What’s the importance of end-to-end testing?
This is testing strategies that execute tests that cover all likely flow of application from its beginning to finish. The objective of doing end-to-end tests helps in discovering software dependencies & to asserts the correct input is passed between numerous software modules & sub-systems.
What are the various levels of manual testing?
The four levels of manual testing include
- System Testing – Here all components of the software are verified as a whole to ensure that the overall product suits the requirements stated. There are more kinds of system testing like usability testing, functional testing, and regression testing.
- Integration Testing – It’s a level of software testing where single units are mixed & tested to check if they’re working as intended when it’s integrated. The major aim here is to test the interface between modules.
- Unit testing – This is a way of testing the smallest code piece known as a unit which can be logically secluded in the system. Its major focus is on the functional correctness of the standalone module.
- User-Acceptance-Testing – This is the last level, user acceptance testing or acceptance testing. This determines whether the software is set to be used.
What’s Test Closure?
Test Closure is a note that’s prepared before the test team formally finishes the testing process. The note has a total number of test cases, defects found, test cases executed, defects fixed, bugs rejected, bugs not fixed, etc.
What’s Test Harness?
This is a collection of software & test information configured for testing a program unit through running it on varying conditions. This involves monitoring output with the expected output.
It has the Test-Execution Engine and Test-Script Repository
What are the various kinds of severity?
The criticality of bugs can be medium, low, or high. This depends on context.
- Misinterpreted information – High
- Boundary linked defects – Medium
- User interface flaws – Low
- Error-handling defects – Medium
- Calculation flaws – High
- Hardware-failures – High
- Control flow faults – High
- Compatibility problems – High
- Load situations – High
What’s API testing?
API-testing is a kind of software testing where the application programming interfaces (APIs) are verified to determine if they suit expectations for reliability, functionality, performance, & security. In other terms, API-testing is anticipated to disclose bugs, deviations, or inconsistencies from the likely behavior of API.
When should one choose manual testing instead of automation testing?
Some cases where one should opt for manual testing over automation testing, include:
- Ad-hoc Testing: Here, there’s no precise approach. It’s a fully unplanned way of testing where understanding & insight of the tester is the only significant factor. It’s achieved through manual testing.
- Short-time projects: Automatic tests are aimed at saving time & resources. However, it takes time & resources to design & maintain them. For example, if you’re creating a small advertising website, it’s more efficient to depend on manual testing.
- Usability Testing: With performing usability-testing, the tester requires to measure how efficient, user-friendly, or convenient a product or software is for end-users. Human observation is a more significant factor, thus manual testing sounds seems extra appropriate
- Exploratory Test: In this kind of testing needs the tester’s knowledge, analytical skills, experience, logical skills, intuition, and creativity. Therefore, human involvement is significant in exploratory testing.
What’s the advantage of test reports?
Test reports help us in finding the current status of a project & its quality. It helps stakeholders & customers get the important actions. The full documentation of test reports helps in analyzing various phases of a project.
What’s a blocker?
This is a bug with high priority & high severity. This blocks or prevents the testing of other major portions of an application.
What’s a latent defect?
This is a concealed defect in application/software and cannot be recognized by a client. However, this can’t cause failure to application because the state will not be met.
What’s boundary value analysis?
This is a software testing method for designing test cases wherein boundaries values of classes of equivalence class-partitioning are taken as input to test cases. For example, if test information lies in the range of 0-100, boundary value analysis includes test data from 0, 1, 99, and 100.
What’s the difference that’s there between a bug, an error, and a defect?
- Defect – This is a variance that’s in between expected results & actual results that are sensed by a developer after a product is live. A defect is an error seen after an application goes to production. This refers to numerous troubles with software products, with external conduct, or with internal features.
- Bug – This is a fault in software that is detected at testing time. It happens the reason being of some coding-error & leads program in malfunction. This can also lead to functional problems in the product. Bugs are deadly errors that can block functionality and can result in a crash, or create bottlenecks performance.
- Error – This is a mistake, misconception, or misunderstanding on part of a software developer. Categories of developers include programmers, software engineers, testers & analysts. For instance, a developer might misunderstand a design notation or a programmer may type a variable name incorrectly leading to an error. The error normally occurs in software and can lead to a change of functionality of the program.
With this guide, you will have basic knowledge of what will be needed in an interview. Remember, interview preparation doesn’t just entail the best dress code, but also mental. Checking the possible interview questions will also help in improving your mental state.